In deep crisis again, as it was in the 2nd half of XIX century. and in the 20s of XX century., discussion broke out about Russia's place in world civilization process. It is generally accepted division of the local civilizations into two main types: Western, historical roots – in antiquity, Christianity, individualism and democratic traditions, this type is the vast majority of developed countries, with all the differences in their historical path, culture and mentality. Another type – Oriental civilization, cultural and psychological foundations of which were formed under the influence of Islam, Buddhism and other Eastern religions, the Asiatic mode of production, strong state role, the prevalence of collectivist and bureaucratic began over the rights of the individual; this type is most of Asia, North Africa and the Middle East. To what type include Russia? Some believe that geographic location, its historic center, the influence of Christianity, the historical roots in the Greek-Byzantine and Western European culture Russia belongs to the Western type of civilization. Others – that historical nature of Russian society to have a decisive impact oriental culture (Tartar conquest, the influence of its eastern neighbors, vast expanses of Siberia), Russia soon so that can be attributed to the eastern civilizations. Others believe that Russia can not be attributed either to the west or to the eastern civilizations, that it forms a special, Eurasian type or "drifts" between the West and Boctokom.
The last point clearly expressed zpeniya LI Testicular: "1. Russia is not an independent civilization, and is not related to any of the types of civilization in its purest form. 2. Russia is a civilization heterogeneous society. This is a special, historically conglomerate of peoples belonging to different types of development, combined a powerful, centralized state with Great-core. 3. Russia geopolitically situated between two powerful centers of civilization influence – East and West, includes in its membership people, developing both the western and eastern version … 4.
With tight turns historical eddies 'moved the' country is closer to the West, but towards the East. Russia is a kind of 'drifting society' at the crossroads of civilization magnetic fields. " With these provisions, it is difficult to accept. First, Russia together with Ukraine and Belarus form an independent local civilization with its original historical destiny, economic and cultural space mentality. Second, by place of residence of the general population, historical roots, the Orthodox Christian religion, this local culture, civilization belongs to Europe, closer to the western type. Another thing is that at certain times she felt strongly influenced by Eastern civilizations. But would, for example, someone questioned Spain belonging to the Western type, although there is historically a very strong influence of Arab culture? Third, in all historical eddies and bends, invasions from the East and West, Russia misleading to "Drifting", located at the crossroads of the historic tract societies, and its individual identity (as the local civilization) and generic (like the Western type of civilization) characteristics sufficiently well defined.