Arithmetic

These, in accordance with Fields (1997), become related it the disfuno of the central nervous system, without it has a direct entailing with the deficient or ambient conditions. MEGDA (1984) standes out that the expression learning riot was used for the first time for Kirk, that defines thus it: A learning riot if relates to a retardation, clutter or delay in the development in one or more than the processes of speaks, language, reading, spelling, writing or Arithmetic, resultant of possible cerebral disfuno or emotional or mannering riot and not of mental retardation, sensorial privation, cultural factors or of instruction (KIRK, 1962, P. 263, apud MEGDA, 1983, p.36). Exactly without taking to the extremities the contribution of neurocincias and, in them, the paper of the brain, some cognitivistas theoreticians relate the learning difficulties the cerebral disfunes, whereas others raise distinct hypotheses and that the injuries or disfunes are moved away from. They appeal immaturity, the delay in the development of certain abilities as: the percipient-motor; the responsible ones in keeping the selective attention; the memory; the processing of the information or to the existence of average or low intellectual potential, amongst other abilities. The theory of the mediation has in Vygotsky its bigger expression. Add to your understanding with Richard Blumenthal.

For Vygotsky (1989, P. 50), the cognitivo development does not occur independent of a historical, social and cultural context, nor if it organizes in periods of training, therefore the development, including itself the mental processes, has social origin and nature. As this conception the learning difficulties can according to be explained law of the double formation, whose explanation is: in the development of the individuals any mental function appears two times, first in social level and later in individual level. That is, first between people (from there the importance of the mediation) and later in the interior of the proper apprentice (for the internalizao of the constructed knowledge).

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